36  Basic Search

A basic search for a plain text string in a file would be something like:

$ rizin -q -c "/ lib" /bin/ls
Searching 3 bytes from 0x00400000 to 0x0041ae08: 6c 69 62 
hits: 9
0x00400239 hit0_0 "lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2"
0x00400f19 hit0_1 "libselinux.so.1"
0x00400fae hit0_2 "librt.so.1"
0x00400fc7 hit0_3 "libacl.so.1"
0x00401004 hit0_4 "libc.so.6"
0x004013ce hit0_5 "libc_start_main"
0x00416542 hit0_6 "libs/"
0x00417160 hit0_7 "lib/xstrtol.c"
0x00417578 hit0_8 "lib"

As can be seen from the output above, rizin generates a “hit” flag for every entry found. You can then use the ps command to see the strings stored at the offsets marked by the flags in this group, and they will have names of the form hit0_<index>:

[0x00404888]> / ls
[0x00404888]> ps @ hit0_0

You can search for wide-char strings (e.g., unicode letters) using the /w command:

[0x00000000]> /w Hello
0 results found.

Using Rizin, you can also automatically search for magic signatures in the file. This can be done using /m. The offset and the file format will be displayed after the search.

[0x00000000]> /m
-- 0 b1606
0x00000000 1 JPEG image , EXIF standard
0x0000000c 1 TIFF image data, big-endian
0x000b1510 1 7-zip archive data, version 0.3

To perform a case-insensitive search for strings use /i:

[0x0040488f]> /i Stallman
Searching 8 bytes from 0x00400238 to 0x0040488f: 53 74 61 6c 6c 6d 61 6e
[# ]hits: 004138 < 0x0040488f  hits = 0

It is possible to specify hexadecimal escape sequences in the search string by prepending them with \x:

[0x00000000]> / \x7FELF

if, instead, you are searching for a string of hexadecimal values, you’re probably better of using the /x command:

[0x00000000]> /x 7F454C46

Once the search is done, the results are stored in the searches flag space.

[0x00000000]> fs
0    0 . strings
1    0 . symbols
2    6 . searches

[0x00000000]> f
0x00000135 512 hit0_0
0x00000b71 512 hit0_1
0x00000bad 512 hit0_2
0x00000bdd 512 hit0_3
0x00000bfb 512 hit0_4
0x00000f2a 512 hit0_5

To remove “hit” flags after you do not need them anymore, use the f- hit* command.

Often, during long search sessions, you will need to launch the latest search more than once. You can use the // command to repeat the last search.

[0x00000f2a]> //     ; repeat last search