Loops

One of the most common task in automation is looping through something, there are multiple ways to do this in rizin. You can find all these loops under @@?.

We can loop over flags:

@@f:flagname-regex

For example, we want to see function information with afi command:

[0x004047d6]> afi
#
offset: 0x004047d0
name: entry0
size: 42
realsz: 42
stackframe: 0
call-convention: amd64
cyclomatic-complexity: 1
bits: 64
type: fcn [NEW]
num-bbs: 1
edges: 0
end-bbs: 1
call-refs: 0x00402450 C
data-refs: 0x004136c0 0x00413660 0x004027e0
code-xrefs:
data-xrefs:
locals:0
args: 0
diff: type: new
[0x004047d6]>

Now let's say, for example, that we'd like see a particular field from this output for all functions found by analysis. We can do that with a loop over all function flags (whose names begin with fcn.):

[0x004047d6]> fs functions
[0x004047d6]> afi @@f:fcn.* ~name

This command will extract the name field from the afi output of every flag with a name matching the regexp fcn.*. There are also other loops, for example one called @@F runs your command on every functions found by rizin:

[0x004047d6]> afi @@F ~name

We can also loop over a list of offsets, using the following syntax:

@@=1 2 3 ... N

For example, say we want to see the opcode information for 2 offsets: the current one, and at current + 2:

[0x004047d6]> ao @@=$$ $$+2
address: 0x4047d6
opcode: mov rdx, rsp
prefix: 0
bytes: 4889e2
refptr: 0
size: 3
type: mov
esil: rsp,rdx,=
stack: null
family: cpu
address: 0x4047d8
opcode: loop 0x404822
prefix: 0
bytes: e248
refptr: 0
size: 2
type: cjmp
esil: 1,rcx,-=,rcx,?{,4212770,rip,=,}
jump: 0x00404822
fail: 0x004047da
stack: null
cond: al
family: cpu
[0x004047d6]>

Note we're using the $$ variable which evaluates to the current offset. Also note that $$+2 is evaluated before looping, so we can use the simple arithmetic expressions.

A third way to loop is by having the offsets be loaded from a file. This file should contain one offset per line.

[0x004047d0]> ?v $$ > offsets.txt
[0x004047d0]> ?v $$+2 >> offsets.txt
[0x004047d0]> !cat offsets.txt
4047d0
4047d2
[0x004047d0]> pi 1 @@.offsets.txt
xor ebp, ebp
mov r9, rdx

If you want to iterate over all instructions of a basic block, you can do:

[0x004047d0]> pi 1 @@i
endbr64
push rbx
test rdi, rdi
je 0x14635

In this example the command pi 1 runs over all the instructions in the current basic block.

If you want to iterate over all instructions of all basic blocks of the current function, you can do:

[0x004047d0]> pi 1 @@i @@b
endbr64     
push rbx            
test rdi, rdi
je 0x14635
mov esi, 0x2f    
mov rbx, rdi
[... cut for example ...]
mov rbx, r8                                                                                    
jmp 0x1461a         
mov rax, qword [reloc.stderr]
mov edx, 0x37     
mov esi, 1            
lea rdi, str.A_NULL_argv_0__was_passed_through_an_exec_system_call.                            
mov rcx, qword [rax]
call sym.imp.fwrite
call sym.imp.abort

Or if you want to make the split between basic blocks clearer:

[0x004047d0]> (_;pi 1 @@i; ?e)() @@b
endbr64     
push rbx            
test rdi, rdi
je 0x14635

mov esi, 0x2f    
mov rbx, rdi
[... cut for example ...]
mov rbx, r8                                                                                    
jmp 0x1461a         

mov rax, qword [reloc.stderr]
mov edx, 0x37     
mov esi, 1            
lea rdi, str.A_NULL_argv_0__was_passed_through_an_exec_system_call.                            
mov rcx, qword [rax]
call sym.imp.fwrite
call sym.imp.abort